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India’s Push for Security Council Reform: The G4 Model

India’s Push for Security Council Reform: The G4 Model


  • India, as part of the G4 nations, has put forth a detailed model for United Nations Security Council (UNSC) reform during the Intergovernmental Negotiations.

  • The model addresses crucial aspects such as under-representation, membership expansion, and flexibility on veto powers, aiming to enhance the Council’s legitimacy and effectiveness.

  • This initiative underscores the ongoing efforts to modernize the UNSC and adapt it to the contemporary global landscape, reflecting the evolving dynamics of international relations.


  • G4 Proposed Model Features: The G4 model advocates for significant reforms in the UNSC’s structure, including:

    • Addressing under-representation by expanding membership and advocating for democratic elections of new permanent members.

    • Proposing an increase in the Council’s membership to include additional permanent and non-permanent members.

    • Offering flexibility on the veto issue to foster constructive negotiations and accommodate diverse perspectives within the Council.

  • The G4, comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan, has been actively promoting Security Council reform since its formation in 2004, advocating for a more inclusive and representative body.

Current News:

  • Key Features of the G4 Proposal: The proposed model aims to rectify the glaring under-representation in the Security Council and enhance its effectiveness by:

    • Advocating for an increase in membership to ensure broader representation from diverse regions.

    • Introducing democratic and inclusive processes for selecting new permanent members to enhance legitimacy.

    • Demonstrating flexibility on the veto issue to facilitate constructive dialogue and decision-making within the Council.

  • These proposals mark a significant step forward in the ongoing discussions on UNSC reform and highlight the G4’s commitment to advancing the agenda for a more representative and responsive Council.


  • The G4’s proposed model for UNSC reform holds significant implications for the future of global governance and security:

    • Enhanced Representation: By advocating for broader representation and democratic processes, the reforms aim to address longstanding grievances of under-represented regions and enhance the Council’s legitimacy.

    • Strengthened Effectiveness: Flexibility on the veto issue and expansion of membership could lead to more inclusive decision-making processes and bolster the Council’s capacity to address contemporary security challenges effectively.

    • Global Governance Dynamics: Successful implementation of these reforms would signal a shift towards a more equitable and responsive international order, reflecting the evolving dynamics of global governance.

  • However, achieving consensus on UNSC reform remains a complex and arduous task, requiring sustained diplomatic efforts and collaboration among member states to overcome divergent interests and perspectives.

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